atDNA Compare Tests Haplogroups
Taiwan Austronesia DNA Markers

Discoving My Genetic Ancestry through DNA

These workpage files on my website provide me easy remote access to update my Work in Progress.

To borrow a phrase, to know who you are, you have to know where your story began. DNA makes this possible. It has the power to uncover details of humanity's deep past. So when my son responded to a media ad to learn your roots, it served as the catalyst that led me to test.

I am intrigued by my test results for ancestry admixture, which is simply gene flow. It is the result of people interbreeding. People create admixture when they migrate from one place into a new location already inhabited by other people, and both groups of people have children together. The DNA of their children becomes a mixture of DNA from each group. As subsequent generations repeat this process, the genomes of present-day descendants contain segments of DNA inherited from each admixing of the groups.

As a way of describing my admixture, the testing company classified me into a maternal and a paternal a haplogroup. Each group identifies a broad geographical location in the world peopled by those with whom I share DNA. Genetic genealogists identify and organize the bits of DNA left from such mixing of populations into these haplogroups. It is the idea that All people alive today belong to distinct haplogroups. People in a haplogroup can trace their descent to a common ancestor and to even a specific place where that ancestor may have lived.

Haplogroups are like clans, such as the Vikings and Mongols. As Steve Olson points out in his book, Mapping Human History, even if the two groups are sharply divided culturally, the mixing of their DNA inevitably blurs the genetic boundary between them. Furthermore, every human group, when viewed on a long enough time scale, is a complex mixture of previous groups.

Still, evidence of all that gene flow remains in each of us, which is evidenced by a study, Reappraising the Viking Image. It reveals many of the Vikings were, in reality, farmers with families seeking to migrate for a better life. The study concerns the genetic legacy of modern diversity by male Y-chromosomes and female mtDNA in a population's gene pool. It uncovers the resulting admixture from males whose ancestry lay in Scandinavia, and from females whose ancestry lay within the British Isles.

Another study along this line is The Genome of a Mongolian Individual Reveals the Genetic Imprints of Mongolians on Modern Human Populations. It involves haplogroup analysis of the male Y-chromosome and female mitochondria genome to show the transmission of the Mongolian genome that left genetic imprints of Mongolians on global ethnic groups.

No doubt, my DNA preserves such archaic gene flow evidence. It tells me I, too, can become a time traveler and through genetic ancestral tracking explore the haplogroup paths and milieu of my ancestral genetic clans with whom I share admixture from the world of antiquity to where they now exist in the present day. This is the fun part of genetics.

Figure 1 is an illustration of portraying world ancestral paths by haplogroups.

Figure 1
Genetic Ancestral Paths
by Haplogroups

My quest is to portray the ancestral milieu of my maternal and paternal clans from their origins in prehistory into the second millennium of the common era, the 20th century. I rely on DNA testing and haplogroups to achieve this purpose, aided by archeology and linguistics. These workpages record what I learn in terms of genes, peoples, and languages.


DNA Testing

My research relies on four types of popular DNA tests readily available to the public.

Autosomal (atDNA) tests,
Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS),
Mitochondrial DNA tests, and
Y-Chromosome DNA tests.

1. atDNA analysis infers my genetic ancestry based on the geographical origins of ancestry inherited from all my maternal and paternal ancestors. My atDNA tests included such popular test providers as as 23andMe.com, Ancestry.com, FamilyTreeDNA.com, and MyHeritage.com.

2. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) provides comprehensive genomic coverage more in-depth than atDNA testing. I tested with two test providers -- Family Tree DNA and Nebula Genomics

3. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis traces my biogeographical mother-line ancestry to follow the migration path of my matrilineal ancestors. I tested with Family Tree DNA.

4. Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA) analysis provides an in-depth view of paternal ancestry. Its Y-DNA lens views intact copies of Y-DNA that each generation of fathers pass on intact to their sons. I tested for patrilineal with YSEQ and Family Tree DNA.

Halogroup Analysis

My research is framed within the perspective of my maternal and paternal haplogroups to which I am assigned by the International Society of Genetic Genealogists (ISOGG). It tells the story from the origin of my genetic ancestors at a time that coincides with the expansion of Stone Age communal society. Following is a summary of my findings to date with links to my workpages.


Comparison of autosomal (atDNA) test company methodologies. I tested with several and found they differ markedly in such areas as the --

1. genealogical timeframes used
2. reference populations sampled
3. delineating populations within a continent
4. sampling population disproportionate to world population distribution
5. no uniform sampling standards or measures of accuracy in estimating ancestry.

Comparison of admixture estimates revealed:

1. a general consensus of my admixture among atDNA testing companies when reported by continent
2. estimates of my admixture among atDNA testing companies differed within regions of a continent
3. estimates of my admixture among atDNA testing companies differed with Whole Genome Sequencing, and Chromosome Painting
4. admixture estimates differ by level of statistical confidence.

My haplogroups are identified as maternal haplogroup B and paternal haplogroup O.

1. The path of my maternal haplogroup extends from a woman in Asia 43,000 years ago to present day Mexico.
2. My maternal ancestral migration was possible because of the lowered sea levels of the Ice Age allowed migrating from Asia to the Americas via the Beringia Landbridge.
3. My paternal haplogroup stems from a man ~30,000 years ago in China who remains in Southeast Asia.
4. The existence of the continent of Sudaland before its descent below sea level prompted extended migratory routes from the present day mainland.
4. My genetic ancestors interacted with other ancient hominids, such as Neaderthals and Denisovans and I share traces of their DNA.

Maternal Line Workpaper. Mitochondrial Full Sequence Analysis reveal my ancestral roots.

1. My mother-line roots begin in mainland Asia 43,000 years ago.
2. At one point, possibly 16,000 years ago, my mother-line ancestors arrived in the Americas and ultimately reached Mexico.
3. Other testers match my mother-line. They list the Philippines and Mexico as their countries of origin.

Maternal Haplogroup Ancestors The earliest known ancestors genetically related to my mother-line are identified by --

1. Name (six with email addresses)
2. Year Living (one in 1877 in Mexico and two others in 1909 and 1990)
3. Geographical Location (four in the Philippines and the one in Mexico)
4. Closeness of their genetic relationship (one is the closest in the Philippines and two are less close in Mexico)

Paternal Haplogroup Ancestry My paternal-line reveals ancestral roots and genetic ancestors with --

1. roots beginning in mainland Asia ~29,400 years ago from the predominant China sub-group.
2. At one point, ~12,000 years ago, my father-line ancestors reached the southeast China coast and/or the island of Taiwan.
3. My paternal haplogroup O is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, and Africa and is absent from the Americas.

The Wegene Example. Autosomal test estimate of parental ancestry.

1. My ancestry is 41% ethnic Chinese
2. My specific admixture is 21% indigenous Taiwan Amis and Atayal populations and 20% mainland China, mostly southern Han
3. Geographical coordinates are provided for paternal ancesty

Deep Paternal Ancestry. Three Y-chromosome based tests reveal in-depth paternal ancestory.

1. With a 95% level of confidnece my most recent male genetic common ancestor lived in Southeast Asia some 2700 years ago.
2. My present genetic marker is among those of the Out of Taiwan peopling of Southeast Asia.
3. Male populations with whom I share DNA exist from east to west in the countries of Myanmar to Taiwan, and the Philippines, and southward from China to Malaysia and Indonesia.

The haplogroup tree depiction traces my lines of descent stemming from the base parental haplogroups at the tree's roots.


All comments and suggestions for improve appreciated
CLICK to email me at: holeman1@gmail.com