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Workpaper on Tracing My Paternal Y-Chromosome Ancestral Line

Findings to date

My paternal-line reveals ancestral roots and genetic ancestors with --

1. roots beginning in mainland Asia ~29,400 years ago from the predominant China sub-group.
2. At one point, ~12,000 years ago, my father-line ancestors reached the southeast China coast and/or the island of Taiwan.
3. My paternal haplogroup O is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, and Africa and is absent from the Americas.


My Y-DNA is the DNA in my Y chromosome and is patrilineal. Only men inherit the Y chromosome. My father inherited his Y chromosome from his father, who inherited it from his father who inherited it from his father and so on ad infinitum.

So, I used Y-DNA testing to trace my direct patrilineal line. This is something I cannot do with autosomal DNA. Unlike my autosomal DNA, my Y-DNA is all male with no female genetic contribution.

With Y-DNA testing, I am tracing my unique male inheritance path to other males beginning with the first generation of my male ancestry. The Y-DNA lens allows me to view intact copies of Y-DNA that each generation of fathers pass on intact to their sons.

Through my haplogroup, I will learn the ancient origins of my direct paternal line with an in-depth view of my Stone Age paternal ancestry. This includes discovering if two men in my patrilineal line have the same genetic marker. This would mean they both have an ancestor who was the first to have that marker and who passed the marker on to them, thus, forming a genetic ancestral relationship. Additionally, these markers reveal the when and where of my paternal genetic line.

I tested to identify my genetic markers with the companies, YSEQ and Family Tree DNA

Figure 19
My Paternal Tree
Using Y-DNA Genetic Markers

Haplogroup O Map

My paternal genetic ancestry is the haplogroup O with its defining genetic marker O-M175, originating ~35,000 years ago as the base of my ancestral tree in Figure 19. The marker O-M175 is mostly present among populations in East and Southeast Asia and associated with the Chinese people and the Han Chinese lineage. Also, its DNA markers to the family of Sino-Austronesian languages.

Dominating the East Asian Y chromosome gene pool, the marker O-M175 accounts for 75% of the entire paternal lineages of Chinese. Yet, it is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, and Africa and is absent from the Americas.

About 29,400 years ago my O-M175 ancestral lineage experienced a genetic variation. This experience resulted in my ancestor's offspring gaining a genetic trait my ancestor didn't have, which was a new genetic marker. The progeny of the O-M175 ancestor had formed the marker O-M122. The progeny with the O-M122 marker is thus known by the acronym Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA). He became the most recent man from which all the men in my O-M122 haplogroup branch are direct descendents.

The O-M122 marker is the main sublineage of O-M175 and is the predominant sub-group in China. It exists at high levels amongst Han Chinese, Tibeto-Burman populations and many of those in Yunnan, Tibet, Myanmar, Northeast India, and Nepal, Manchu, Mongolians, Koreans, Vietnamese, Malays, Filipinos, Thailand, etc.

Figure 20
Southeast Asia Area
of My Y-DNA Genetic Markers

Haplogroup O Map

While I know when this O-M122 MRCA lived, some 24,700 years ago, I only know generally where he lived. Yet as the ethnic ancestor of the Han Chinese, he likely lived as a nomad staying near rivers and lakes, possibly along the 600 mile stretch of the Yangtze River believed to be the cradle of ancient civilizations. To that possibility, my O-M122 ancestor may have lived in the river section known as the Middle Reach and in the general vicinity of the present day Hubei Province of China where the famous Three Gorges are located.

Then, about 23,200 years ago in the Yangtze River Delta my O-M122 ancestor gave rise to a new ancestor bearing the DNA Marker O-P201 in the general vicinity of present day Chongqing. The O-P201 marker is a major branch of haplogroup O in Asia.

It might have been the harshness of ice age weather or global cooling that drove both animals and man south and prompted my O-P201 ancestor's continued southern migration. In any case, it resulted in the emergence of an O-P164 ancestor ~19,200 years ago. Interestingly, with the advent of the Neolithic Period 18,000 years ago the matriarchal clan society existed in China with the mother as head of the family and descent traced through the mother's side.

In any case, continued mainland migration into Southeast Asia would shape the pattern of genetic variation among my subsequent ancestors as shown in Figure 21. Their journey may have even been overland into the continent of Sundaland, which was connected by a land bridge to the mainland would not wholly sink under the sea until ~12,000 years ago.

Figure 21
Map of My Genetic Paternal Markers


CLICK to email me at: holeman1@gmail.com