Home Page
Autosomal Tests
Compare Tests
My Haplogroup
Maternal Line
Matrilineal Matches
Paternal Line
Taiwan Example
Austronesian Expansion
My Haplogroup Tree

Workpaper for Paternal Ancestry Admixture Taiwan Example

Findings to date

Workpaper: The Wegene autosomal test serves as an example of a paternal ancestry estimate

1. My ancestry is 41% ethnic Chinese
2. My specific admixture is 21% idigenous Taiwan Amis and Atayal populations and 20% mainland China, mostly southern Han
3. Geographical coordinates are provided for paternal ancesty


The WeGene company determined my ancestry to be reflected by the DNA marker, 0-P164, and located in southern mainland China and the island of Taiwan. Early humans lived in Taiwan ~50,000 years ago at a time when the current Taiwan Strait was above sea levels and served as a land bridge to the mainland. Around 5000 years ago farmers from mainland China settled on the island. These people are believed to have been speakers of Austronesian languages, which dispersed from Taiwan across the islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The current Taiwanese aborigines are believed to be their descendants.

The WeGene lab ancestral findings for me matched with the DNA of populations living in the geographical area of present day Taiwan and the Southern Han population living some 81 miles across the waters of the Taiwan Straits in mainland Fujian.

Table 9
company map coordinates for my reference populations and my admixture percentages
WeGene Lab Autosomal Test


As reported in Table 9, my ethnic Chinese admixture is 41.37% ethnic Chinese of which is 21.36% is specifically, that of the indigenous Amis and Atayal people. It is estimated about 85% of Taiwanese people might have some genetic markers of the indigenous tribes.

Figure 21
Map Locations of My Paternal Marker Migration
used by WeGene Lab


Table 9 also shows 13.49% of my admixture is Southern Han, which are dominant in Taiwan. The Chinese Han migration into Taiwan began in the 17th century and presently constitute more than 90% of China's population and 20% of the global population as discussed in this video.

Figure 22
My Asian Ancestry Admixture
DNA Land Analysis


Similarly, my admixture in Figure 22 reports 21% Taiwanese ancestry. Of my 44% East Asian ancesty, 37% is Southeast Asian. The O-P164 branch is predominant in paternal lineages of Taiwan’s indiginous Amis/Atayal population. They are the unassimilated, highland-dwelling aborigines of Taiwan who are linguistically related to the Austronesian-speaking ethnic groups of the Philippines and, more broadly, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Southeast Asia (SEA) islanders. But, in other areas of Asia and Oceana the marker is no more than 4%.

Taiwan itself during the period of my genetic ancestors was part of the mainland of present day China. The theory is the Taiwan’s Gaoshan indigenous people originated from one branch of the ancient Yue ethnic group living during the Stone Age along the eastern edge of the mainland connecting with the then Sundaland, which at the time was above sea level. But, with the retreat of the glaciers accompanied by climate change and the rising sea level, present day Taiwan and the islands of Southeast Asia would become isolated from the mainland.

Yet, DNA gene flow for several millennia would occur from the mainland into Taiwan around 100 miles distant, and from Taiwan a continued flow to the Southeast Asia islands. Taiwan's southern tip is ~300 miles from the northern tip of the Philippines, and within easy reach of Malaysia to the south. Even farming-voyaging immigrants sailed from Taiwan to the Japanese Yaeyama islands 160 miles to the north from which on clear days, the silhouette of Taiwan in the distance can be seen.

Migrations also occurred into Taiwan from neighboring islands. Just 500 miles across the water migrations have occurred within the last 10,000 years from the Visayas in the southernmost islands of Luzon, and the northern and eastern coastal parts of Mindanao in the Philippines. For example, a modern day study sample of the Philippines as recent 1900, shows an almost pure composition, very close to the modern Taiwanese South Island Gaoshan people such as the Amis and Atayal.

Such a scenario is supported by the autosomal test findings for me at the point in time of my marker, O-P164. This marker represents the so-called most recent common ancestor MRCA from which all the men with the O-P164 marker are directly descended. In this case, it is the WeGene company, which is the marker was identified by 23andMe as well as the WeGene company located in China with an extensive Asian reference population database. WeGene's analytical algorithm uses machine learning and is based on the Admixture ancestor analysis tool developed by the University of California (UCLA) in Los Angeles. The algorithm compares the tested person's autosomal DNA information with that of reference populations in the their database, and quantifies the similarities.

That said, genetic affinities between aboriginal Taiwanese and populations from Oceania and Southeast Asia have been explored through analyses of Y chromosomal DNA in connection with the peopling of the islands of Southeast Asia emenated from Taiwan. Also interesting in January 16, 2020 the company 23andMe published the report What is Austronesian ancestry by Samantha Ancona Esselmann, Ph.D. to explain "saying it was that we were missing a big part of the human migration story." Apparently their testers with little or no "Filipino" ancestry who were designated as such reached an average of 75 percent in customers from other island locations as shown in Figure 22.

Austronesia Map


CLICK to email me at: holeman1@gmail.com