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Resources and Methods

A Work In Progress by Herbert Holeman, PhD.

These Draft Workpaper Notes Posted .


My research relies on three types of DNA tests readily available to the public: Autosomal (atDNA), Mitochondrial (mtDNA), and Y-DNA.

Figure 35
DNA Test Types

image from Living Dna

Autosomal analysis infers my genetic ancestry sorted by geographical origins. It enables the study of biogeographical ancestry in a search for lineage inherited from all my maternal and paternal ancestors. My DNA test providers included the 23andMe Company, the Ancestry Company, the FamilyTreeDNA Company, and the MyHeritage Company, which are among the most popular. Additionally, I included Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), which in this case is Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). In contrast to Y and mitochondrial DNA tests, whole genome is an autosomal test of chromosomes 1-22 to provide in-depth comprehensive genomic coverage. I tested with the Nebula Genomics Company

Mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis traces my biogeographical mother-line ancestry to follow the migration path of my Matrilineal ancestors. I tested with the FamilyTree Company.

3. Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA) analysis provides an in-depth view of paternal ancestry. Its Y-DNA lens views intact copies of Y-DNA that each generation of fathers pass on intact to their sons. I took the full panel O-175 test at YSEQ DNA Company and the NGS Big-Y test at the FamilyTree Company.


My workpages are organized in a narrative format in which I:

1. Start with autosomal test estimates of ancestral admixture. To explore test- providers differences in timeframes, populations sampled, disproportional sampling, accuracy, and areas measured.

2. Compare the autosomal ancestry estimate with whole-genome sequencing, and chromosome painting by the level of confidence in ancestry estimations.

3. Map my deep ancestry with haplogroup trees and map my world maternal - paternal ancestral migrations.

4. Discover other DNA testers who match my mother-line with mtDNA mitochondrial full sequence analysis.

5. Compile mother-line admixture from genetic markers migrations.

6. Follow paternal-line migrations with the Y-Chromosome Full Panel and Big Y tests.

7. Compile father-line admixture from genetic markers migrations

8. Trace more recent paternal ancestry Admixture with Next-Generation Sequencing.

9. Match genetic ancestral lineages based on DNA shared with other test-takers.

Copyright © 2018 Herbert P. Holeman, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved.